The pattern of assault-related oral and maxillofacial injuries among patients treated at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaKarpal Singh Sohal, Boniphace M. Kalyanyama, Elison N.M. Simon
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
International Medicine 2020; 2(2): 119-124 | DOI: 10.5455/im.78356 PDF
Background: The orofacial region, being the first point of contact in various human interactions, is frequently the target for injuries especially in an assault. This study aimed at determining the pattern of assault-induced oral and maxillofacial injuries at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania.
Methods: This was a prospective study that involved all patients with assault-related maxillofacial injuries who were consecutively treated at the oral and maxillofacial department of the Muhimbili National Hospital from November 2017 to February 2018. The patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and later were clinically examined and the details recorded in a special clinical form. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics of the patient, mode of assault and type of injuries sustained. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows Version 20 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) Software.
Results: Thirty-two patients aged 20 to 57 years (mean = 33.5 ± 8.79 years), comprising of 26 (81.2%) males and 6 (18.8%) females (M:F= 4.3:1) who suffered maxillofacial injuries due to an assault were included in the study. Majority (21, 65.6%) of the victims had low socioeconomic status, and alcohol use was reported in 34.4% of the victims. The most frequently encountered soft tissue injuries were lacerations followed by hematoma. About 68% of the assault victims suffered different types of fractures. The mandible was the most commonly fractured bone, of which the angle was the most commonly affected. The maxilla was the next frequently affected bone, with the majority of the fractures involving the alveolar bone. Other bones that were fractured were the zygoma, the orbit and the nasal bone.
Conclusions:Young adult males were the most affected group, with alcohol consumption and low socioeconomic status playing a major role as contributing factors to interpersonal violence. The assaults resulted in both soft and hard tissue injuries.
Keywords: maxillofacial injuries, Tanzania, trauma